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Foundations of World History: Chicago Style Citations and Format

All sections

The Cheat Sheet -- Footnotes

The first time you cite a source:

The note should include bibliographic information, in the following order and format, plus the page number for the information cited:

10. Burt Solomon, FDR v. The Constitution: The Court-Packing Fight and the Triumph of Democracy (New York: Walker Publishing Company, 2009), 44.

Subsequent notes for a source:

Give the author's last name, and the page(s) cited:

  17. Solomon, 50.
 
What if?

You have more than one source by the same author?

 The first note for that source is the same as above; subsequent sources give the author's last name, a shortened form of the title

(italics if a book and quotation marks if an article), and the page(s) cited:  

78. Roosevelt, "Judicial Reform Now!," 10.

You have no author?
Leave it off:
               12. "The New Supreme Court Justice: Career of Modern Western Lawyer Who Has Achieved Great Amibtion of Lawyers - His High Qualifications," The New York Ti
mes, September 10, 1922, http://query.nytimes.com.    

When citing subsequent sources, simply include the shortened form of the title and page number:

               16. "The New Supreme Court Justice," 6.
 
You have no page #?
 Leave it off:
               65. Franklin D. Roosevelt, "Judicial Branch Reorganization Plan" (Press Conference, White House, February5, 1937), New Deal Network, http://newdeal.feri.org.
 

When citing subsequent sources, simply include the author and shortened form of the title:
               66. Roosevelt, "Judicial Branch Reorganization Plan."

Citation samples courtesy of Meredith Moran in The Primary Source 2011.* (except 16.)

Footnotes (N) and Bibliography (B) Examples

BOOKS

Book:
Single Author

First note citation in a paper with full bibliography or subsequent citations with or without:
N:   1. Gutman, Mozart, 41.

First note citation in a paper without full bibliography:
N:   1. Robert W. Gutman, Mozart: A Cultural Biography (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999), 41.

B: Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1999.

Book:
Two Authors

N:   7. Randolph Hock and Gary Price, The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: A Guide for the Serious Searcher (Medford: CyberAge Books, 2004), 93-4.

B: Hock, Randolph, and Gary Price. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: A Guide for the Serious Searcher. Medford: CyberAge Books, 2004.

Book:
Four or More Authors

N:   2. William Davidson et al., Retailing Management, 6th ed. (New York: Wiley, 1988), 149.

B: Davidson, William, Daniel Sweeney, Thomas Jones, and Ronald Stampfl. Retailing Management. 6th ed. New York: Wiley, 1988.

Book:
No Author

If no personal author's name is listed on the title page, the organization/corporation is listed as author, even if it is also given as publisher.

N:   5. JIST Works, NAICS Desk Reference, 73.

B: JIST Works. NAICS Desk Reference: The North American Industry Classification System Desk Reference. Indianapolis: JIST Works, 2000.

Book: Multivolume

When citing the work as a whole, give the total number of volumes after the title (or editor). If published over several years, give the range of years.

N:   8. Wright, Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. 4 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968-78, 2:341.

B: Wright, Sewell. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. 4 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968-78.

When citing only one volume:

N: Sewell Wright, Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, vol. 2,Theory of Gene Frequencies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969), 341.

B: Wright, Sewell. Theory of Gene Frequencies. Vol. 2, Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969.

Chapter in a Book

N:   6. Robert F. Willson, Jr., "William Shakespeare's Theater," in The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005), 52-3.

B: Willson, Jr., Robert F. "William Shakespeare's Theater." In The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students, edited by Joseph Rosenblum, 47-64. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005.

Book Published Electronically

If a book is available in more than one format, you should cite the version you consulted, but you may also list the other formats, as in the second example below. If an access date is required by your publisher or discipline, include it parenthetically at the end of the citation, as in the first example below.

N:   3. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987),http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/ (accessed June 27, 2006).

B: Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/. Also available in print form and as a CD-ROM.

Articles

Journals vs Magazines: Journals are normally cited by volume and date, while magazines are normally cited by date alone. If in doubt whether a particular periodical is a journal or magazine, use the journal format if the volume number is easily located, and the magazine format if it is not.

Journal with Issue Number Available

N:   1. Carolyn Simmons and Karen Becker-Olsen, "Achieving Marketing Objectives through Social Sponsorships," Journal of Marketing 70, no. 4 (2006): 161.

B: Simmons, Carolyn, and Karen Becker-Olsen. "Achieving Marketing Objectives through Social Sponsorships." Journal of Marketing, 70, no. 4 (2006): 154-169. 

Journal with no Issue Number

N:   4. Sarah Graham, "Impossible to Hold: Women and Culture in the 1960s." Journal of American Studies 40 (2006): 157.

B: Graham, Sarah. "Impossible to Hold: Women and Culture in the 1960s."Journal of American Studies 40 (2006):156-159.

Article in an Online Journal

Just like print journals, only adding the URL and also the access date in parentheses at the end if required by your professor or discipline.

N:   2. Mark A. Hlatky et al., "Quality-of-life and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women after receiving hormone therapy," Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (2002),http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo.

B: Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy." Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6, 2002),http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo(accessed January 7, 2004).

Article in an Online Database

This is the same as for online journals as listed above, including use of access date. Also include the URL of the main entrance of the service.

N:   17. Trevor M. Thomas, "Wales: Land of Mines and Quarries,"Geographical Review 46, no. 1 (1956): 71, http://www.jstor.org/.

B: Thomas, Trevor M. "Wales: Land of Mines and Quarries." Geographical Review 46, no. 1 (1956): 59-81. http://www.jstor.org/.

Entire Website

Websites may be cited in running text ("According to the National Weather Service's website, warmer temperatures may be expected...") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from the bibliography as well. The following examples show the more formal version of the citations. Add the date the material was last accessed for time-sensitive data or if you are required.

N:   13. “Internet Weather Source,” National Weather Service, http://www.nws.noaa.gov/.

B: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "NOAA's National Weather Service." U.S. Dept. of Commerce. http://www.nws.noaa.gov/ (accessed January 17, 2010).

Magazine

If article is from an online magazine, add the URL after the date and, if required or for time-sensitive data, the date the material was last accessed (see second "B" example).

N:   4. Stanley Reed, "Seeing Past the War," Business Week, August 21, 2006, 21.

B: Reed, Stanley. "Seeing Past the War." Business Week, August 21, 2006.

B: Reed, Stanley. "Seeing Past the War." Business Week, August 21, 2006.http://www.businessweek.com/news/2006-08-21/seeing-past-the-war.html (accessed October 3, 2006).

Newspaper

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text (“As William Niederkorn noted in a New York Times article on June 20, 2002, . . . ”) instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from the bibliography as well. The following examples show the more formal version of the citations.

N:   3. Zachary Seward, "Colleges Expand Early Admissions," Wall Street Journal, December 14, 2006, eastern edition.

B: Seward, Zachary. "Colleges Expand Early Admissions." Wall Street Journal. December 14, 2006, eastern edition.

Personal Interviews and Films

Personal Interview

Unpublished interviews are best cited in the text or in notes, but are rarely listed in bibliographies.

N:   13. Krusty T. Clown, interview by Bart J. Simpson, February 10, 2007.

N:   7. Abraham Lincoln, interview with the author, October 17, 2009.

Published interviews should be treated like an article in a journal.

N:   3. Ted Nugent, interview by Robert MacNeil, MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour, PBS, January 1, 2004.

Film

N:   9. E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, directed by Steven Spielberg (Universal Pictures, 1982), film.

B: E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. directed by Steven Spielberg. Film. Hollywood: Universal Pictures, 1982.

Recorded Film

Scenes from video recordings are treated like chapters and cited by title or number (see example #2).

N:   4. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone, DVD, directed by Chris Columbus (Warner, 2002).

N:   2. "Crop Duster Attack," North by Northwest, DVD, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000).

B: The Adventures of Bob and Doug McKenzie: Strange Brew. VHS. Directed by Rick Moranis and Dave Thomas. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000.

 TV Program N:   12. Seinfeld, "The Soup Nazi," NBC, November 2, 1995.

Example of Chicago Style Paper

Sample Chicago Style Paper (last two pages of sample paper is the bibliography)

From Purdue Owl:

https://owl.english.purdue.edu